Seismic Response to Mining
The green area of activities in the flowchart entitled “seismic response to mining” (Figure 25) is where the seismic sources in the mine are identified, understood and the seismic hazard is quantified, before control measures are applied to reduce the seismic risk to a tolerable level. The main tools to investigate the seismic response to mining are numerical models, seismological models and case studies of historical seismic response to mining.
Figure 25 Flowchart of the seismic risk management process emphasing the data collection activities
Gap#2; Calibration of numerical and seismological models: Mines currently extensively use numerical models and seismological models, but none of them have ever been properly calibrated for caving. The calibration of most models has been limited to some degree by correlation to sparse observational data. The uncertainty of the model’s prediction is unknown.
How to fill the gap: New developments in physical modelling with seismic systems, where all variables are known and the outcome can be verified visually.